Statins Use in Alzheimer Disease: Bane or Boon from Frantic Search and Narrative Review

authors

  • Alsubaie Nawal
  • Al-Kuraishy Hayder
  • Al-Gareeb Ali
  • Alharbi Bandar
  • de Waard Michel
  • Sabatier Jean-Marc
  • Saad Hebatallah
  • Batiha Gaber El-Saber

abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) was used to describe pre-senile dementia to differentiate it from senile dementia, which develops in the adult age group of more than 65 years. AD is characterized by the deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaque and tau-neurofibrillary tangles (TNTs) in the brain. The neuropathological changes in AD are related to the deposition of amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and progression of neuroinflammation, neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy dysfunction, and cholinergic synaptic dysfunction. Statins are one of the main cornerstone drugs for the management of cardiovascular disorders regardless of dyslipidemia status. Increasing the use of statins, mainly in the elderly groups for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, may affect their cognitive functions. Extensive and prolonged use of statins may affect cognitive functions in healthy subjects and dementia patients. Statins-induced cognitive impairments in both patients and health providers had been reported according to the post-marketing survey. This survey depends mainly on sporadic cases, and no cognitive measures were used. Evidence from prospective and observational studies gives no robust conclusion regarding the beneficial or detrimental effects of statins on cognitive functions in AD patients. Therefore, this study is a narrative review aimed with evidences to the beneficial, detrimental, and neutral effects of statins on AD.

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