Parkinson disease: Protective role and function of neuropeptides


  • Tabikh Mireille
  • Chahla Charbel
  • Okdeh Nathalie
  • Kovacic Hervé O
  • Sabatier Jean-Marc
  • Fajloun Ziad


  • Angiotensin
  • Carnosine
  • Neuropeptide
  • Opioid
  • Orexin
  • Parkinson disease
  • VIP


Neuropeptides are bioactive molecules, made up of small chains of amino acids, with many neuromodulatory properties. Several lines of evidence suggest that neuropeptides, mainly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), play an important role in the onset of Parkinson's Disease (PD) pathology. The wide spread disruption of neuropeptides has been excessively demonstrated to be related to the pathophysiological symptoms in PD where impairment in motor function per example was correlated with neuropeptides dysregulation in the substantia niagra (SN). Moreover, the levels of different neuropeptides have been found modified in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of PD patients, indicating their potential role in the manifestation of PD symptoms and dysfunctions. In this review, we outlined the neuroprotective effects of neuropeptides on dopaminergic neuronal loss, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in several models and tissues of PD. Our main focus was to elaborate the role of orexin, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), opioids, angiotensin, carnosine and many others in the protection and/or involvement in the neurodegeneration of striatal dopaminergic cells. Further studies are required to better assess the mode of action and cellular mechanisms of neuropeptides in order to shift the focus from the in vitro and in vivo testing to applicable clinical testing. This review, allows a support for future use of neuropeptides as therapeutic solution for PA pathophysiology.

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