Insights into tau molecular structures have advanced significantly in recent years. This field has been the subject of recent breakthroughs, including the first cryo-electron microscopy structures of tau filaments from Alzheimer's and Pick's disease inclusions, as well as the structure of the repeat regions of tau bound to microtubules. Tau structure covers various species as the tau protein itself takes many forms. We will here address a range of studies that help to define the many facets of tau protein structures and how they translate into pathogenic forms. New results shed light on previous data that need now to be revisited in order to update our knowledge of tau molecular structure. Finally, we explore how these data can contribute the important medical aspects of this research-diagnosis and therapeutics.