NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) is expressed mainly in colon epithelial cells and produces superoxide ions as a primary function. We showed that Nox1 knockdown inhibits directional persistence of migration on collagen I. This paper dissects the mechanism by which Nox1 affects the direction of colonic epithelial cell migration in a two-dimensional model. Transient activation of Nox1 during cell spreading on collagen 1 temporarily inactivated RhoA and led to efficient exportation of alpha2beta1 integrin to the cell surface, which supported persistent directed migration. Nox1 knockdown led to a loss of directional migration which takes place through a RhoA-dependent alpha2/alpha3 integrin switch. Transient RhoA overactivation upon Nox1 inhibition led to transient cytoskeletal reorganization and increased cell-matrix contact associated with a stable increase in alpha3 integrin cell surface expression. Blocking of alpha3 integrin completely reversed the loss of directional persistence of migration. In this model, Nox1 would represent a switch between random and directional migration through RhoA-dependent integrin cell surface expression modulation.