Metabolic changes and inflammation in cultured astrocytes from the 5xFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: Alleviation by pantethine

authors

  • Gijsel-Bonnello Manuel
  • Baranger Kévin
  • Benech Philippe
  • Rivera Santiago
  • Khrestchatisky Michel
  • Reggi Max
  • Gharib Bouchra

keywords

  • Mice
  • Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor
  • Transgenic
  • Presenilin-1
  • Cell Survival
  • Disease Models
  • Animal
  • Cells
  • Cultured
  • Astrocytes
  • Gene Expression
  • RNA
  • Messenger
  • Pantetheine
  • Citric Acid Cycle
  • Glycolysis
  • Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1
  • Alpha Subunit
  • Inflammation
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Metabolomics
  • Animals
  • Alzheimer Disease
  • Pentose Phosphate Pathway

abstract

Astrocytes play critical roles in central nervous system homeostasis and support of neuronal function. A better knowledge of their response may both help understand the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and implement new therapeutic strategies. We used the 5xFAD transgenic mouse model of AD (Tg thereafter) to generate astrocyte cultures and investigate the impact of the genotype on metabolic changes and astrocytes activation. Metabolomic analysis showed that Tg astrocytes exhibited changes in the glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, compared to wild type (WT) cells. Tg astrocytes displayed also a prominent basal inflammatory status, with accentuated reactivity and increased expression of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Compensatory mechanisms were activated in Tg astrocytes, including: i) the hexose monophosphate shunt with the consequent production of reducing species; ii) the induction of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), known to protect against amyloid-β (Aβ) toxicity. Such events were associated with the expression by Tg astrocytes of human isoforms of both amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin-1 (PS1). Similar metabolic and inflammatory changes were induced in WT astrocytes by exogenous Aβ peptide. Pantethine, the vitamin B5 precursor, known to be neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory, alleviated the pathological pattern in Tg astrocytes as well as WT astrocytes treated with Aß. In conclusion, our data enlighten the dual pathogenic/protective role of astrocytes in AD pathology and the potential protective role of pantethine.

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