ArgTX-636, a polyamine isolated from spider venom: A novel class of melanogenesis inhibitors


  • Verdoni Marion
  • Roudaut Hermine
  • de Pomyers Harold
  • Gigmes Didier
  • Bertin Denis
  • Luis José
  • Bengeloune Abd Haq
  • Mabrouk Kamel


  • 5
  • 6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid
  • Argiotoxine
  • ArgTX-636
  • DHICA oxydase activity
  • DOPA oxydase activity
  • Hyperpigmentation
  • Melanocytes
  • Melanogenesis
  • Oxidase activity
  • Receptors
  • Spider venoms
  • Tyrosinase
  • Tyrosinase related protein 1 TRP-1


To discover new molecules with an inhibitory activity of melanogenesis a hundred of scorpions, snakes, spiders and amphibians venoms were screened for their capacity to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase using 3,4-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as substrate. The Argiope lobata spider venom proved to be the most active. HPLC fraction containing Argiotoxine-636 (ArgTX-636), a polyamine known for its numerous biological activities, was found to also show a good regulation activity of melanogenesis by inhibiting DOPA and 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA) oxidases activities, wore by tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1), respectively. Our results demonstrate that ArgTX-636 reduced the mushroom tyrosinase activity in a dose dependent way with a maximal half inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 8.34 mu M, when L-DOPA is used as substrate. The Lineweaver-Burk study showed that ArgTX-636 is a mixed type inhibitor of the diphenolase activity. Moreover, ArgTX-636 inhibits DHICA oxydase activity of mushroom tyrosinase activity with IC50 at 41.3 mu M. ArgTX-636 has no cytotoxicity in B16F10 melanoma cells at concentrations up to 42.1 mu M. The effect of ArgTX-636 on melanogenesis showed that melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cell decreased by approximatively 70% compared to untreated cells. ArgTX-636 displayed no significant effect on the TYR expression while the protein level of TRP-1 decreased in B16F10 cells. Thus, ArgTX-636 could have particular interest for cosmetic and/or pharmaceutical use in order to reduce important dermatoses in black and mixed skins. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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