Point of view: Should COVID-19 patients be supplemented with vitamin D?


  • Annweiler Cédric
  • Cao Zhijian
  • Sabatier Jean-Marc


  • Biomarker
  • COVID-19
  • Causality
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Treatment
  • Vitamin D


Using Hill's methodology for exploring causality, we aimed to determine in early May 2020 whether evidence supports vitamin D as a biological determinant of COVID-19 outcomes. Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone theoretically able to reduce COVID-19 risk through regulation of (i) the renin-angiotensin system, (ii) cellular innate and adaptive immunity, and (iii) physical barriers. Inverse associations were found between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Randomized controlled trials testing vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of COVID-19 are in progress. Positive results in such studies would encourage the use of vitamin D supplements as an adjuvant treatment in COVID-19.

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