Neurons rely on a unique organization of their cytoskeleton to build, maintain and transform their extraordinarily intricate shapes. After decades of research on the neuronal cytoskeleton, it is exciting that novel assemblies are still discovered thanks to progress in cellular imaging methods. Indeed, super-resolution microscopy has revealed that axons are lined with a periodic scaffold of actin rings, spaced every 190 nm by spectrins. Determining the architecture, composition, dynamics, and functions of this membraneassociated periodic scaffold is a current conceptual and technical challenge, as well as a very active area of research. This short review aims at summarizing the latest research on the axonal periodic scaffold, highlighting recent progress and open questions.