Glioblastoma multiforme is the most malignant of the primary brain tumors and is almost always fatal. The treatment strategies for this disease have not changed appreciably for many years and most are based on a limited understanding of the biology of the disease. Growth factors are potential targets for therapeutic strategies because they are essential for tumor growth and progression. Adrenomedullin (AM) is a multifunctional regulatory peptide with mitogenic and angiogenic capabilities among others. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that AM mRNA was correlated to the tumor type and grade, with high expression in all glioblastomas analysed, whereas a low expression was found in anaplastic astrocytomas and barely detectable levels in low-grade astrocytomas and oligodendriogliomas. The correlation of AM expression to the grade of glioma support the hypothesis that AM may participate in the progression of gliomas. We demonstrate that AM may function as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor for glioblastoma cells. The data demonstrated that the anti-AM antibody significantly suppress the growth of established glioblastoma xenografts. The action of AM is specific and is mediated by the calcitonin receptor-like receptor/receptor activity-modifying protein-2 and -3 (CRLR/RAMP2, CRLR/RAMP3). Furthermore, the proangiogenic action of AM on cultured endothelial cells via CRLR/RAMP2 and CRLR/RAMP3 receptors may translate in vivo into enhanced neovascularization and therefore identify AM and its receptors acting as potential new targets for antiangiogenic therapies.