In healthy Drosophila melanogaster larvae, plasmatocytes and crystal cells account for 95% and 5% of the hemocytes, respectively. A third type of hemocytes, lamellocytes, are rare, but their number increases after oviposition by parasitoid wasps. The lamellocytes form successive layers around the parasitoid egg, leading to its encapsulation and melanization, and finally the death of this intruder. However, the total number of lamellocytes per larva remains quite low even after parasitoid infestation, making direct biochemical studies difficult. Here, we used the HopTum-l mutant strain that constitutively produces large numbers of lamellocytes to set up a purification method and analyzed their major proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis and their plasma membrane surface proteins by 1D SDS-PAGE after affinity purification. Mass spectrometry identified 430 proteins from 2D spots and 344 affinity-purified proteins from 1D bands, for a total of 639 unique proteins. Known lamellocyte markers such as PPO3 and the myospheroid integrin were among the components identified with specific chaperone proteins. Affinity purification detected other integrins, as well as a wide range of integrin-associated proteins involved in the formation and function of cell-cell junctions. Overall, the newly identified proteins indicate that these cells are highly adapted to the encapsulation process (recognition, motility, adhesion, signaling), but may also have several other physiological functions (such as secretion and internalization of vesicles) under different signaling pathways. These results provide the basis for further in vivo and in vitro studies of lamellocytes, including the development of new markers to identify coexisting populations and their respective origins and functions in Drosophila immunity.