The low-molecular weight thiol pantethine, known as a hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic agent, is the major precursor of co-enzyme A. We have previously shown that pantethine treatment reduces amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced IL-1β release and alleviates pathological metabolic changes in primary astrocyte cultures. These properties of pantethine prompted us to investigate its potential benefits in vivo in the 5XFAD (Tg) mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD).1.5-month-old Tg and wild-type (WT) male mice were submitted to intraperitoneal administration of pantethine or saline control solution for 5.5 months. The effects of such treatments were investigated by performing behavioral tests and evaluating astrogliosis, microgliosis, Αβ depo-sition, and whole genome expression arrays, using RNAs extracted from the mice hippocampi. We observed that long-term pantethine treatment significantly reduced glial reactivity and Αβ deposition, and abrogated behavioral alteration in Tg mice. Moreover, the transcriptomic profiles revealed that after pantethine treatment, the expression of genes differentially expressed in Tg mice, and in particular those known to be related to AD, were significantly alleviated. Most of the genes overexpressed in Tg compared to WT were involved in inflammation, complement activation, and phagocytosis and were found repressed upon pantethine treatment. In contrast, pantethine restored the expression of a significant number of genes involved in the regulation of Αβ processing and synaptic activities, which were downregulated in Tg mice. Altogether, our data support a beneficial role for long-term pantethine treatment in preserving CNS crucial functions altered by Aβ pathogenesis in Tg mice and highlight the potential efficiency of pantethine to alleviate AD pathology.