Aims - Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) plays a pivotal role in the management of patients with heart failure (HF) and wide QRS complex. However, the treatment is plagued by numerous non-responders. Aim of the study is to evaluate the role myocardial work estimated by pressure-strain loops (PSLs) in the comprehension of physiological mechanisms associated with CRT and in the prediction of CRT response. Methods and results - Ninety-seven patients with symptomatic HF (ejection fraction: 27 ± 6%, QRS duration 164 ± 18 ms) undergoing CRT implantation according to current recommendations were retrospectively included in the study. Standard 2D and speckle tracking echocardiography were performed before CRT and at the 6-month follow-up (FU). PSL analysis allowed the calculation of global and regional myocardial constructive work (CW) and wasted work (WW). A > 15% reduction in left ventricular (LV) end-systolic volume at FU defined CRT-positive response (CRT-PR). At FU, 63 (65%) patients responded to CRT. Global CW (CWtot) was significantly increased in CRT-responders. At multivariate analysis, CWtot > 1057 mmHg% (OR 14.69, P = 0.005) and septal flash (OR 8.05, P = 0.004) were the only significant predictors of CRT-PR. CWtot was associated with the entity of CRT-induced myocardial remodelling in both ischaemic (r = -0.55, P < 0.0001) and non-ischaemic patients (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001). A CWtot < 1057 mmHg% identified 85% of non-responders with a positive predictive value of 88%. Conclusion - Patients with higher CWtot exhibit a favourable response to CRT. These data encourage further studies for the assessment of the myocardial substrate related to the functional response to CRT.