In sheep as in rat, it has been highly suggested that neuronal histamine (HA) participates to the estradiol (E2)-induced GnRH and LH surges, through H1 receptor. With the aim of determining if E2 could act directly on HA neurons, we examined here whether HA neurons express estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the ewe diencephalon during the breeding season. We first produced a specific polyclonal antibody directed against recombinant ovine histidine decarboxylase (oHDC), the HA synthesizing enzyme. Using both this anti-oHDC antibody and an anti-ERα monoclonal antibody in double label immunohistochemistry, we showed that HA neurons do not express ERα in diencephalon of ewes with different hormonal status. This result diverges from those obtained in rat, in which around three quarters of HA neurons express ERα in their nucleus. This discrepancy between these two mammal species may reflect difference in their neuronal network.